Conditional Sentence

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Conditional sentences are statements discussing known factors or hypothetical situations and their consequences. These sentences use conditional construction and verb forms, which is called the conditional mood. Complete conditional sentences contain a conditional clause and the consequence. As a refresher, a clause is a group of words with their own subject and verb.

Source : http://www.grammarly.com/handbook/sentences/conditional-sentences/

Clausa

A clause is a group of related words containing a subject that tells readers what the sentence is about, and a verb that tells readers what the subject is doing.

Source : http://study.com/academy/lesson/clause-definition-examples-quiz.html


Uses of the Conditional

  1. First conditional
    1. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible.
    2. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time.

e.g. If he is late, we will have to go without him. If my mother knows about this, we are in serious trouble.

   2. Second conditional

    1. Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations.
    2. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now.

e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you. If I were you, I would tell my father.
Compare: If I become president, I will change the social security system. (Said by a presidential candidate) If I became president, I would change the social security system. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable) If we win this match, we are qualified for the semifinals. If I won a million pounds, I would stop teaching. (improbable)

   3. Third conditional

    1. Nature: unreal
    2. Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.)

e.g. If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party.(But you didn’t, and I have).

Source : http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conditional2.htm

Types of Conditional Sentence

1. Form

Type If – Clause Main Clause
I Simple Present          Will-future or (Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past          Would + infinitive *
III Past Perfect          Would + have + past participle *

2. Examples (If – Clause at the beginning)

Type If Clause Main Clause
I If I study,        I will pass the exam.
II If I studied,        I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied,        I would have passed the exam.

3. Examples (If – Clause at the end)

Type Main clause If – Clause
I I will pass the exam      If I study.
II I would pass the exam      If I studied.
III I would have passed the exam      If I had studied.

4.      Examples (Affirmative and Negative Sentences)

Type   Examples
    Long Forms Short/Contracted Forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II + If I studied, I would pass the exam. If I studied, I’d pass the exam.
If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam.
If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III + If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.
If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.
If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

Source : http://www.english-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm

Explaining about The Fact in Conditional Sentence

Conditional sentence type 1 :

type 1

if + Simple Present, will-Future

Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

Example : If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.

Example : If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.

Conditional sentence type 2 :

type 2

if+ Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Examples :

If i had enough time now, i would write to my parents.

Fact: i do not have enough time now, so i do not write to my parents.

He would not come to your party if you did not invite him.

Fact : he will come to party, because you invite him.

Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“

Example : If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.

Example : If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he doesn’t have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.

Conditional sentences type 3 :

type 3

if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II

Example :

if you had told me about the problem, iwould have helped you.

Fact : you did not tell me about the problem, so i did not help you.

I would not have got wet yesterday if i had remembered to take umbrella with me yesterday.

Fact : i got wet, because i did not remember to take my umbrella with me yesterday.

Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.

Example : If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn’t find her address, however. So in the end I didn’t send her an invitation.

Example : If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.
Source : http://abdantamimi.blogspot.co.id/2012/03/conditional-sentences.html

Exercise

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense (conditional 1):

  1. If I (finish) early, I will call you.
  2. I (catch) the 9:00 train if I hurry up .
  3. She will know the answer, if she (try) to understand.

Answer Key :

  1. Finish
  2. Will catch
  3. Tries

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense (conditional 2):

  1. If I (be) a star, I would help the needy.
  2. He (buy) a house if he had a job.
  3. She (be) happy, if she married him .

Answer Key :

  1. Were
  2. Would buy
  3. Would be

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense (conditional 3):

  1. If he (be) careful, he would not have had that terrible accident.
  2. I (pass) the exam if I had worked hard .
  3. Her father would not have died, if he (go) to the doctor.

Answer Key :

  1. Had been
  2. Would have passed
  3. Had gone

Source : http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-conditionals.php

Active and Passive Voice

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–          Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Tom writes a letter.

Tom is a thing who is doing action.

Writes is a verb.

A letter is a thing which is receiving action.

–          Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

A letter is written by Tom.

A letter is a thing which is receiving action.

“Is” is tobe.

Written is past participle of verb.

By is by.

Tom is a thing who is doing action.

Tense Active Passive
Simple Present Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Simple Past Sam repaired the car. The car was repaired by Sam.
Present Continuous Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Past Continuous The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect Many tourists have visited that castle. That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Past Perfect George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.

Source : http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/activepassive.html

Active and Passive with Modals

Active voice: CAN Passive voice: CAN BE
She can play a violin.
She can not play a violin.
Can she play a violin?
A violin can be played by her.
A violin can not be played by her.
Can a violin be played by her?
Active voice: MAY Passive voice: MAY BE
I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?
The computer may be bought by me.
The computer may not be bought by me.
May the computer be bought by me?
Active voice: MIGHT Passive voice: MIGHT BE
Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.

Might guests play chess?

Chess might be played by guests.
Chess might not be played by guests.

Might Chess be played by guest?

Active voice: SHOULD Passive voice: SHOULD BE
Students should study all lessons.
Students should not study all lessons.
Should students study all lessons?
All lessons should be studied by students.
All lessons should not be studied by students.
Should all lessons be studied by students?
Active voice: MUST Passive voice: MUST BE
You must learn the test-taking strategies.
You must not learn the test-taking strategies.

Must you learn the test-taking strategies?

Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.
Test-taking strategies must not be learned by you.

Must test-taking strategies be learned by you?

Active voice: OUGHT TO Passive voice: OUGHT TO BE
They ought to take the examination.

They ought not to take the examination.

Ought to they take the examination?

The examination ought to be taken by them.

The examination ought to not be taken by them.

Ought to the examination be taken by them?

Source : http://www.studyandexam.com/passive-voice-for-modal.html

Passive Voice – Exercises

Fill in the correct passive form of the verb in parentheses.

Example :

  1. After the earthquake, aid was sent to the people of Haiti. (sent)
  2. The electricity was cut off because the bill hadn’t been paid. (not pay)
  1. Penicillin ______ by Alexander Fleming in 1928. (discover)
  2. Statements ______ from all the witnesses at this moment. (take)
  3. Whales ______ by an international ban on whaling. (must protect)
  4. Both weddings _______ by Good Taste. (cater)
  5. A Picasso ____ from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.(steal)
  6. ____ this washing machine ______in Germany? (make)
  7. Tea _____ in China. (grow)
  8. When we reached the airport, we found that all the flights____ due to the storm. (cancel)
  9. The fax _____ until tomorrow morning. (not send)
  10. The soundtrack of a movie _____ always _____ after the filming is finished. (is/add)

Answers:

  1. was discovered (Simple Past because “was” refer to tobe of past simple).
  2. are being taken (Present Continous because “are being” refer to pattern of present continous ).
  3. must be protected (Present Simple with modal “Must”)
  4. were catered (Simple Past because “were” refer to tobe of past simple).
  5. was stolen (Simple Past because “was” refer to tobe of past simple).
  6. Was/made (Simple Past because “was” refer to tobe of past simple).
  7. is grown (Simple Present because “is” refer to tobe of present simple).
  8. had been cancelled (Past Perfect because “had been” refer to pattern of past perfect).
  9. won’t be sent (Simple Future because “won’t or will not” refer to pattern of past simple).
  10. is/added (Simple Present because “is” refer to tobe of present simple).

Source : http://www.gingersoftware.com/content/grammar-rules/verbs/passive-voice/